The Charcoal Vertical Smoker: A Complete Guide

by Matt

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Today we're exploring Charcoal Vertical Smokers, also known as Bullet Smokers. For this discussion lets just stick with calling them Vertical Smokers.

In my opinion vertical smokers are your best bet for starting out in the smoking game. I started out with a vertical drum style smoker and it made me fall in love with the "hobby". Vertical Smokers are a solid choice for learning the ropes of smoking, and they're the perfect starting smoker to get you cooking up some great meals for family and friends.

Vertical smokers are all about delivering that classic smoky flavor we all love. They are also very easy to learn on. The temperature is far easier to maintain than a large offset smoker. You may not be able to feed 100 people but you can easily feed 10.

So are you ready to get stuck into the in's and out's of using a vertical smoker? Lets get into it. 

Introduction To Vertical Smokers

Vertical smokers, as the name shouts out, stand tall. They’re usually made up of three or four main parts. At the base, you’ve got where the charcoal and wood get fired up, here you will also find some air vents. Move up, and you have a section where the water pan sits and usually a grill grate. Then comes the upper section with another grill grate and capping it all off is the lid with another air vent and thermometer.

Charcoal is the go-to fuel for vertical smokers. It brings a great flavor, whether you're smoking meats or grilling directly over the coals. I’m all in for firing up the base of the smoker and grilling over the coals instead of hitting up my gas grill.

Sure, lighting up coals takes a bit more work compared to just twisting a knob on a gas grill, but the taste? Oh man, it’s well worth that extra effort.

Bullet Smoker

Why Choose A Vertical Smoker

If you're new to smoking meat and looking for a smoker, vertical smokers are my pick. There's a bit of a learning curve with smokers when it comes to managing coal amounts and adjusting temperatures. But don't worry you'll get the hang of it quickly. Tuning temperatures is actually part of the fun in smoking meat, well to me it is anyways.

Vertical Smoker vs Offset Smoker

I find Vertical Smokers a bit easier for maintaining temperature, and they use a little less charcoal as well. Don’t get me wrong, both smokers have their place. Yet, when it comes to user-friendliness, Vertical Smokers are the easiest. 

Smoky Flavor

Vertical Smokers create that sought after smoky flavor of true BBQ. They’re also great to be used as a direct grill. I often just use a grill grate directly on the base to sear large cuts of steak. My favorite would be tomahawk steak. 


I’ve taken my smoker camping quite a few times. With just one cooking section, it’s compact enough to fit into the car. There is something I find so relaxing about spending the day tending the smoker whilst out in nature.

So, if you’re looking to step into the BBQ game or just want to add a new smoker to your collection, Vertical Smokers are a solid pick. They’re all about delivering that traditional smoky flavor, doubling up as a grill, and being a trusty companion on camping trips.

Design and Construction of Vertical Smokers

Vertical smokers are a barbecue enthusiasts ideal choice due to their sturdy design and robust build. Lets get into the details shall we?

Water Pan

A water pan is important for both moisture control and temperature regulation. By creating a humid environment, it prevents the meat from drying out, and helps stabilize the smoker's temperature. Also, the moisture allows smoke to better adhere to the meat, enhancing flavor and aiding in the formation of the smoke ring.

Grill Grates

The grill grates are pretty self explanatory, They provide your cooking surface. I do recommend choosing a smoker with stainless steel grill grates, as they are durable and easy to clean.


The lid of the smoker is quite important, it contains an air vent which draws the smoke up over the meat. Lids also generally contain a thermometer but in my experience they tend to be fairly inaccurate. A good digital thermometer is always the best option. 

Vertical Smoker Showing Different Sections


Vertical smokers may also come with a diffuser. Diffusers are used to distribute smoke and heat evenly across the cooking area. Positioned above the heat source, the diffuser acts as a barrier that moderates intense heat and spreads it more uniformly before it reaches the food. This setup not only helps prevent hot spots and potential charring but also gives better smoke circulation around the food.


Vertical smokers are typically made of stainless steel, aluminum, or steel. I recommend choosing a smoker that is made of stainless steel, as it is the most durable material.

Each component in a Vertical Smoker’s design plays a important role in the BBQ process, from firing up the coals to ensuring the heat and smoke distribute evenly. And when it comes to construction, these smokers are built to take a beating and keep on smoking for many years to come.

Getting Started with Your Vertical Smoker

Before we get to smoking there is some preparation needed before the meat hits the grill. This section serves as your guide outlining each step to ensure your Vertical Smoker is prepped and set for action.

Lighting Up The Coals

Start the Coals: I personally use the side burner of my grill. Also you can use a camping stove to light a chimney full of coals. This should take about 10 minutes to see the bottom coals ignite.

Transfer Coals: Move the chimney to the coal grate of your smoker. Surround it with some unlit coals to maintain a steady heat source as they catch fire gradually.

Once the coals are all grey and ashy (20-30 mins) empty them out into your smoker base. Snake Method Or Minion Method are the two most common ways to set up your coals for smoking. 

Lighting Method: Alternatively, use fire starters by placing a couple at the bottom of the chimney, filling it with coals, and lighting the starters from underneath.

Pre-Smoke Cleanup

While your coals are getting fiery, it's cleanup time. Sweep out any old ash from the smoker’s base, give the water pan and grill grates a good wipe, and a spray of oil on the grates will ensure your meats don’t stick.

Get it heating

With the coals alight, empty the chimney into the coal bed, fill up the water pan with boiling water, and set the grill grates in place.

Setting the Temperature

Close the lid and start adjusting the air vents. I usually start with them about 80% closed, giving it around 10 minutes to see where the temperature settles.

A digital thermometer will make your life much easier here. I couldn't imagine life with out one. They are essential for monitoring and maintaining the right temperature.

I highly recommend a Bluetooth or Wi-Fi-enabled thermometer that sends real-time data to your phone, allowing you to monitor the temps whilst away from the smoker.

Chef'sTemp digital thermometer displaying various meat temperatures on a smoker grill.

Wood Chunks

I place 2 or 3 wood chunks onto the hot coals whilst I am dialing in the temperature. Pre burning the wood gets rid of impurities, ensuring the meat is flavored by clean smoke.

Get Smoking

With the smoke running clear and your temperature dialed in, it’s time to get your meat on the smoker. Place them on the grill grates, close the lid, and let the smoking begin. If you would like some ideas on what to smoke first, I have written a guide all about Pulled Pork and Beef Brisket.

Keeping Tabs

Keep a close eye on the temperatures, adjusting the vents as needed. Also, remember to check the water pan every so often, topping it up with hot water to keep the humidity up and the temperature steady. For those longer smoking sessions, be prepared to add more coals, following the initial lighting process to keep the heat going.

Post-Cook Cleanup

Once your meats are out and resting, it’s cleanup time. I find cleaning the grill grates while they're still warm is the easiest approach. I also tackle the water pan now before the fats and juices harden onto the pan. I close all the air vents and let the coals burn out naturally.

Ash Handling

I personally leave the coals to burn out naturally and clear the ashes the following day. It’s a simple, hassle-free routine that keeps your Vertical Smoker ready and waiting for the next BBQ session.

This guide provides straightforward steps to master your Vertical Smoker, ensuring your BBQ sessions are consistently great. Follow these steps to perfect your smoking technique and enjoy many flavorful meals.

Mastering airflow and ventilation in a vertical smoker

Airflow is the at the heart of achieving consistent temperatures and, by extension, successful smoking sessions. Here’s a deeper dive into understanding this crucial aspect:

Air Vents

Purpose: Vents are integral to temperature regulation in a vertical smoker. They control the amount of oxygen that reaches the fire, which in turn impacts how hot the fire burns. More oxygen leads to a hotter fire, while less oxygen cools the fire down.

Adjustment: Finding the right balance in vent adjustment is key. It's often advised not to close or open the vents completely but to find a sweet spot that maintains a steady temperature.

Number and Location: Having multiple vents, usually at least three - two on the bottom and one on the top, gives you more control over the airflow and makes it easier to maintain a consistent temperature.

Exhaust Vent

Purpose: The exhaust vent, usually located on the lid of the smoker, helps in maintaining the temperature by providing an exit for excess heat and smoke.

Adjustment: Keeping the exhaust vent open allows for better air circulation, contributing to a more stable temperature. I leave my exhaust vent fully open at all times whilst smoking.

Manual Vent Adjustment

Continuous Monitoring: Manual vent adjustment requires continuous monitoring, especially in the initial stages when you're still getting the hang of your smoker's temperature dynamics.

Experience: Over time, you'll get a feel for how your smoker responds to different vent settings, making temperature control more intuitive.

Airflow Dynamics

Internal Air Circulation: Understanding how air circulates within your smoker can help in better temperature control. Hot air rises, so having a good circulation of air helps distribute heat more evenly.

External Factors: Wind and outdoor temperature can affect airflow. Shielding your smoker from wind or using a windbreak can help maintain consistent airflow and temperature.

Learning from Mistakes

Trial and Error: Every smoking session provides an opportunity to learn and improve. If you find that you're struggling with temperature control, reviewing your vent settings and making adjustments in future sessions can lead to better control over time.

Understanding the airflow and ventilation dynamics in your vertical smoker and how they impact temperature control is a bit of a learning curve. As you gain experience and learn from each smoking session, you’ll find that managing temperature becomes second nature, leading to delicious and satisfying results from your smoker.

If you would like more information on temp control, then head on over to Mastering Temperature Control.

Tips for Effective Temperature Control

Mastering temperature control is key to successful BBQ smoking. This section offers straightforward tips for managing your vertical smoker's heat, helping you nail the perfect smoky flavor every time.

Avoid Frequent Lid Opening:
Every time the lid is opened, heat and smoke escape, causing fluctuations in the internal temperature. Resist the urge to peek, and keep the lid closed as much as possible.

Use a Water Pan:
A water pan helps in absorbing excess heat, keeping the temperature stable, and adding moisture to the smoking environment, which is beneficial for the meat.

Quality Charcoal and Wood:
High-quality charcoal and hardwoods burn more consistently, providing a steady heat source. Avoid using softwoods as they burn unevenly and can impart an unpleasant flavor to the food.

Digital Thermometer:
Invest in a good digital thermometer with probes to monitor the internal temperature of the smoker and the meat accurately. It's a game-changer in achieving precise temperature control.

Maintain a Clean Smoker:
Regular cleaning of ash and grease buildup ensures better airflow and more accurate temperature control.

Shield from Wind:
Wind can cause temperature fluctuations. If possible, position your smoker in a sheltered area or use a windbreak to maintain a steady temperature.

Practice Patience:
Achieving and maintaining the desired temperature can take some time, especially when you're still learning your smoker's nuances. Patience is key to mastering temperature control.

Experiment and Learn:
Every smoking session is a learning experience. Take notes on vent settings, charcoal amounts, and weather conditions to understand how they impact temperature control, and adjust in future sessions.

Preheat Your Smoker:
Ensure your smoker reaches the desired temperature before placing the meat inside. A well-preheated smoker will recover its temperature quicker after the lid has been opened.

By applying these tips and gaining experience over time, you'll find that maintaining the desired temperature in your vertical smoker becomes more intuitive, leading to better results and more enjoyable smoking sessions.

Starting your BBQ journey with a Vertical Smoker offers a world of flavor and opportunity. Whether you're a backyard enthusiast or aiming for pro-level smoking, understanding your smoker's mechanics and mastering temperature control are crucial. This guide provides the essential tips you need to elevate your BBQ skills. Get ready to experiment with different techniques and enjoy crafting delicious meals that impress any BBQ lover. Happy smoking!

About the Author

Matt Barrell

Hi, Matt Barrell here. A BBQ and Smoked meat enthusiast. I love grilling and smoking meat, it is not just my hobby its my passion. My goal is to share my passion with as many other like-minded people as possible.